A colegia was any group that served as a legal entity in ancient Rome. Colegia required the consent of the Roman Senate or the Emperor to be recognize as legal bodies after the Lex Julia was passed during the rule of Julius Caesar. As Consul and Dictator of the Roman Republic (49-44 BC), and their affirmation during the rule of Caesar Augustus as Princeps Senatus and Imperator of the Roman Army (27 BC-14 AD).
These affiliations may be civic or spiritual. Colegium derives from the word colegia (‘coleague’), meaning “society.” They served as social clubs or religious organizations whose members worked to further their common goals. These shared interests included political interests, cult practices, and a variety of other aspects of urban life: trade, business, and government services. Colegia fostered social ties that influenced politics and the economy; they served as lobbying groups and representative organizations for business owners. The Roman government banned social organizations due to links between some colegia and involvement in political violence and social unrest.
Colegia could serve as guilds, social clubs, or burial societies; in reality, they occasionally evolved in ancient Rome into organized groups of neighborhood businesspeople and even criminals who oversaw the mercantile and criminal activities in a particular urban area (similar to a rione). Legal colegia enjoyed certain privileges, including a legal right to an attorney, common property, and a common treasury.
Many facets of daily life have the corresponding colegia, and a sizable portion of a town’s population may be a part of colegia associations. A collegium’s structure was frequently model after civic governing bodies, with the Senate of Rome serving as the model. The meeting space was often referred to as the curia, the same name used for the Roman.
Central Roman government
The central Roman government had the final say in whether colegia and other civil organized bodies should be formed. Colegia required the approval of the Roman Senate or the emperor to be recognize as legal bodies after Julius Caesar’s social reforms between 49 and 44 BC (lex Iulia) were implemented, and Augustus reaffirmed them. Colegia were frequently the target of restrictions and bans because the Roman government had doubts about how these social associations served their purpose.
The legislation was constantly being pass that could affect civil collegian’s legality. The Senate outlawed all civic colegia in 64 BC because they violated the Roman constitution. Still, they were reinstated six years later, in 58 BC. All. Still, the oldest colegia were abolished as part of Julius Caesar’s social reforms, which also mandated that any new colegia be approve by the Senate as beneficial to the community.
Colegia in the Roman world later in the second century AD demonstrated signs of greater tolerance by the Roman authorities. Inscriptions in Asia Minor show colegia operating with greater freedom under Hadrian as Roman restrictions shrank and became more transient. In the latter part of the third century, the Roman emperor Aurelian established state control over colegia.
Colegia of religion
The Roman government authorized and supported religious colegia, which were form by priestly fraternities and served various religious purposes in Rome. These included the administration of ritual sacrifices, the use of horoscopes, the preservation of scriptures, the planning of festivals, and the upkeep of particular religious sects. These colegia served social and funerary purposes in addition to their religious ones, offering a venue for fellowship and securing burial services for their members.
In descending order of significance, there were four major religious colleges for Roman priests (quattuor amplissima collegia):
- The pontifex Maximus Auguries serves as the head of the Pontifices (the College of Pontiffs).
- Facundis quindecimviri sacris
- the eponymous Septemviri
- There were other smaller religious colleges, such as:
- Arvales Luperci Sodales Fetiales Salii Titii Fratres
Military Colegia were considering to be rudimentary and violent militias during Republican Rome and around 100 AD.
According to inscriptions at Lambaesis, the Legio III Augusta military clubs were founded during the rule of Septimius Severus (193-211). They were found by specialists, and petty officers assign to the legion’s various services. As commercial and industrial unions proliferated during the Severan dynasty (193-235 AD), the government focused on raising living conditions for soldiers. Service clubs’ main objective was to assist their members in paying for their final expenses. Officers and staff assign to particular tasks were permit to join the clubs; however, regular soldiers on active duty were not enabling to establish clubs or become members. The officer’s membership in a military collegium provides insurance against unanticipate events requiring a significant financial outlay. Within Lambaesis, gathering spots for these colegia have been found.
Colegia pietatis, or “schools of piety,” are Christian communities that meet to study the Bible and devotional writings. The idea was first put forth in the 16th century by Martin Bucer, a German Protestant Reformer and a close friend of John Calvin in Strasbourg. A century later, Philipp Jakob Spener adopted the notion to combat what he saw as the Protestant churches’ moral and spiritual laxity and put into practice a program of reform that focused on Bible study, devotional activities, and individual piety.
Spener laid out this reform strategy in a book title Pia Desideria (“Pious Wishes”). As a result, a religious revival affects not only the church but society at large in many German states. They place a lot of emphasis on Spener, and his followers were referring to as Pietists because they live a pious lifestyle.
History of Roman Colegia
This list of historic Roman colegia (Latin singular colegium, meaning “join together”; English word “college”) designates a selection of the scholarly, cult, and ossuary organizations that were active during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. Political clubs, also known as sodalities, were Roman associations’ other primary legal structures. Roman society was organize mainly by the colegia, especially among enslaved people and other members of the lower classes.
At the same time, the aristocratic writers of the era were largely unintereste in documenting the labor union activities. The cult worshipping rituals and general social practices of the working classes, much of the history of colegia was left unrecord by Roman historians. However, there were some notable and prestigious exceptions to this rule, such as the Collegium Pistorum, the college of bakers, which received wealth, senate political influence, and historical significance in ancient Rome.
The most influential professional colegia frequently had a significant political impact, including on legislation and judge appointments. A public corporation was use as the model for this professional class of colegia. Colegia were never accorded the same legal personhood rights as contemporary corporations under Roman law.
When studying the ancient Roman colegia, their legal standing with the Roman government serves as the main dividing line. Whether a colegium was legal or illegal, it was classify as colegium legitimism or colegium illicit. Throughout Roman history, this classification underwent several paradigm shifts, with various Senates and Emperors being either strict or lenient about a colegium’s statutory requirements. Most of the colegia operating were doing so illegally during many more stringent periods, and colegial law enforcement remained lax.
Christianity was the most well-known of these illegal colegians. Additionally, local governors and magistrates frequently exercised broad discretion in prohibiting or punishing colegia within their spheres of influence. These factors led to the same colegium.
Occasionally, depending on the policies of the Roman authorities, they would be dissolve and reorganize. For instance, the Colegium Bacchus was the first colegium to be outlawed in record history. The Senate forbade the worship of Bacchus in 186 BC. After being restore, the Colegium Bacchus was briefly prohibit for a second time in 64 BC by the Roman Republic.
Central Italiam Government
The central Italian government and the Eastern Roman Empire had very different magistrate attitudes toward colegia. The Iulia lex colleges were enacted by the Roman Senate in 21 BC, during the reign of Emperor Augustus. The result of Iulia lexes collegial bestowed colegia with a certain level of legal capacity, including property rights and the ability to participate as a defendant and a plaintiff in legal proceedings. The colegia also gained the ability to receive inheritances during the imperial era.
The influential religious reform movement known as pietism, or German pietism, got its start among German Lutherans in the 17th century. In contrast to the perceived emphasis on doctrine and theology over Christian living in the main Lutheran church, it emphasized individual faith. Pietism spread quickly and later developed concerns for social and educational issues. Its indirect influence has continued into the twenty-first century in Germany and other parts of Europe as a phenomenon of individual religious renewal.
Following is a brief discussion of pietism. Check out Protestantism for more information.
Whenever religion seemed to become disconnected from experience throughout Christian history, pietistic movements would emerge. By the start of the 17th century, Lutheranism had developed an educational system that helped battle opponents like the Roman Catholic Church and the Reformed sect, but not for spiritual enlightenment. As a result, many German Lutherans looked for a different way to express their faith and built it using internal and external influences.
Through the translation of works by Richard Baxter, John Bunyan, and others, English Puritanism made its way to Europe. Dutch Pietism was create by religious exiles in the Netherlands, including William Ames, and quickly spread into Germany as a component of the movement known among local Lutherans as “Reform Orthodoxy.” These traditional Lutherans’ “pectoral heart theology” found its highest expression and broadest audience in Johann Arndt’s writings (1555–1621).
Era’s Lutheran hymnody
The era’s Lutheran hymnody significantly contribute to the atmosphere of spiritual renewal. The destruction cause in Germany by the Thirty Years’ War also yielded notable signs of revival, such as an interest in devotional literature and mystical tradition.
Philipp Jakob Spener’s life and work served as a point of convergence for the early streams of the renewal movement (1635–1705). As a pastor in Frankfurt is Main, Spener was trouble by the area’s depravity and lack of righteousness. As a result, he establishe the first colegia pietatis, or “assemblies of piety,” where Christians would gather regularly for reading devotions and sharing spiritual ideas. The practice quickly became synonymous with the movement, and those who frequented the convents became known as Pietists.
In his most well-known work, Pia Desideria (1675; Pious Desires), Spener identified flaws in the orthodoxy of the day and put forth reform ideas. His recommendations included more effective use of the Scriptures both privately and publicly and a greater acceptance by the laity of their priestly duties as Christians. It increased efforts to bear the tangible fruits of living faith, ministerial training that prioritized piety and learning over intellect, and edifying spiritual preaching. For such reforms, the colegia pietatis were the perfect tools.
A student-run radio station, Radio Colegial, is located on the University of Puerto Rico’s Mayaguez campus. Every semester, participants must produce a radio program for the station’s listeners, which may be educational, informative, or just for fun. Students have the chance to develop their creativity, social, and communication skills by creating these programs, which will benefit them in the future.
A team of students from the Recinto Universitario de Mayaguez (RUM) Chapter of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) set out in 2007 to take a project from their organization—a radio program—and turn it into a project that would benefit the entire student body as well as themselves. As a result, Radio Colegial was establish as the official student radio station at RUM, run entirely by students.
The radio station’s programming was stream via the websites www.radiocolegial.com and uprm.edu/radiocolegial. The General Student Body, the Campus Administration, and the Association of University Students Radio Colegial, which is made up of students from various departments and faculties, have all collaborate on this project since its inception. The goal is to use Internet radio to establish a communication medium for the student body.
Radio Colegial has reached every region globally and has over 7,000 listeners, doubling its audience yearly. “Students from marketing, engineering, agronomy, and other fields collaborate to develop an online radio alternative that targets the university community.”
The programming is create to interact and become aware of everything in “Colegial” student life. Since everyone involved in this project is a student and they all share the exact needs, it is relatively straightforward to attend to the market’s needs.
The campus’s cultural and athletic events feature in some of the broadcasts. The volleyball and basketball matches play on campus were broadcast by Radio Colegial as part of the athletics programming. In many cases, it was the only outlet for the games to be heard, even when the female varsity basketball team won the gold medal in 2009. Radio Colegial has distinguish itself in the coverage of other activities by highlighting significant university events like The Agricultural Fair-Five Days with Our Earth.
The Lightning of Christmas Night, and other titles. In addition, Radio Colegial participates in community education initiatives like conferences. And forums where businesspeople and professionals have visited the station. Furthermore, RC only plays independent music as part of its musical programming to support and promote local music and talent.
Radio Colegial intends to keep assisting and supporting the student community as it develops. One of their objectives is: Maintain your role as a platform for student expression and communication on the RUM campus. Encourage students to create innovative ideas to help the community and Radio Colegial grow.
Students manage to comprehend and work with their needs to continue being a communications medium.
In Managua, Nicaragua, there is a private Catholic school call Colegio Centro América. The Jesuits established elementary, middle, and high schools in Granada in 1916. The boarding school quickly rose to the top of the list for children from affluent families. The institution is still regard as the best in the nation.
The school was successful in educating the business elite in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s during a time of rapid agricultural transformation and growth, which turned Nicaragua into the breadbasket for Central America. Many of the school’s graduates became influential farmers and ranchers who significantly impacted politics and the economy.
The Jesuit Province of Mexico was in charge of this. During a time of persecution in Mexico, they travelled to Nicaragua in 1916 and founded the school in Granada. These Jesuits initially came from Spain, Mexico, and Italy, spreading from Granada to the rest of Central America. The historian Camillo Crivelli was one of them.
With the help of the government and the church, a proper school building could be construct by 1920. Granada’s library and physics, chemistry, and biology laboratories were built during this early time. Later, a zoo and a natural sciences museum were add to the college campus. Bernardo Ponzol, a Jesuit anthropologist, was the driving force behind the project.
A shift in the guard
As the Mexican Jesuits were gradually leaving, the Jesuits from Castile, Spain, made a significant contribution during this time. Around 1964, a primary school was establish in Managua on Zacarias Guerra (currently Colón street). Work on the current building in Managua got underway as the College continued to develop in Granada. The transition to Managua was gradual; after primary school, the entire Granada College had relocated by 1967.
The number of students went up after the change. There were day students instead of boarding students. Students were more contemporary than the more traditional Grenadian society. Amando Lopez, the college’s dean in 1975, would become one of El Salvador’s Jesuit martyrs. The 1979 Sandinista Revolution’s victory also brought about a time of transition and crisis for higher education. Numerous parents withdrew their children from school because they disagreed with the new policies, and among the changes were the following:
During mandatory military service, many students died; student participation in coffee harvesting and the national literacy campaign. The college then decided to become co-educational in 1984, with all the changes that this brought about. According to Pedro Arrupe, one revision emphasizes Jesuit Father General Jesuits are to form men and women for others. Colegio Centro America offers immersion programs for students from American Jesuit high schools.
Several national holidays are celebrate. All schools are close on days observe nationally, such as Dia di Betico, which honours Gilberto Francois “Betico” Croes’ birth on January 25. Class queens are chosen from each grade to compete for the title of school queen each year during the carnival celebration.
The Kiwanis Aruba Key Club chapter hosts several activities. It includes bake sales, charity fundraisers, and Valentine’s Day sales of roses, candy, and stuffed animals.
Rodolpho and his Classical RA7 Version
The Rodolfo Tipica RA7 rendition of the song was use for a Nescafé commercial. It aired on French television in 1980, helped the song gain popularity in France and the rest of continental Europe. In movie theatres, a longer version of the Nescafé commercial was shown. The ad agency Publicis first tested the concept in Ecuador, which later spread to other nations in Latin America before reaching Europe.
Soon after, RCA released the Rodolfo y su Tipica version as a single, with Gabriel Romero’s interpretation of Senon Palacio’s “La Subienda” on the B-side. As a result, Nescafé sales significantly increased.
Languages and changes
It was translate into French by Richard Gotainer as “Les frappés du café,” into Spanish by Serge Nelson. As “Les frappés du café (La Colegiala Remix),” and into English by Crooke Stilo as “Mis Colegialas” in 2004. With additional lyrics and musical changes, King Africa released it under “Africana.” It was publishe in Turkish as “Sen” by doing Titles. It was re-release in 2010 by Belle Perez with significant changes to the lyrics in Spanish.
The song “Cho Larey,” base on “La Colegiala,” can be found on the soundtrack of the Indian film Ullaasam.
Colegio Arubano, which translates to “Aruban High School,” is a secondary school in Aruba. That educates students in grades seven through twelve from one of its two campuses in the capital city of Oranjestad. The southern community of Sint Nicolaas (measured in Ciclo Basico as equivalent to seventh and eighth grades and VWO [four-year programme] / HAVO [three-year program] as equivalent to American high school grades nine through twelve). Since the separation of the two campuses, Colegio San Nicolas has been adopting as the new name for the school in Sint Nicolaas.
On February 15, 2008, protests against Colegio Arubano and other schools on the island of Aruba were held. According to a 2007 study of Colegio Arubano’s student body. Roughly 70% of students graduate from lower grade feeder schools and are qualified to enroll in Colegio Arubano. Comparatively, 72% of VWO participants and 65% of HAVO participants complete their final exams. The under-directors are Mariana Jimenez (acting), Milouschka Wernet, Richelle Noel, and Igmar Davelaar.
As of 2019, there were approximately 100 teachers and 1657 students enrolled.
The school offers Papiamento, Dutch, English, Spanish, and French language instruction. Students may select their subjects as they transition from the third to the fourth grade. Three different courses, or profiles, are available for the HAVO section: MM: Mens En Maatschappij (Economics, Management & Organization, Statistics, Math, and History), NW: Natuurwetenschappen (Mathematics, Physics, Biology, and Chemistry), and HU: Humaniora (Spanish, History, Geography, Economics and Drama classes).
The Humaniora course is not available to VWO students. There is a required specialize component for each subject combination, which includes a project related to the student’s technical subjects. Students also select one other optional subject and one or two optional subjects related to their chosen subject combination.
Former director and biology instructor left Colegio Arubano on May 1, 2015. The new director and Dutch professor are H. Timmermans. Students demonstrated against the new director after his first month on the job. In the middle of December 2015, Timmermans quit Colegio Arubano without giving a reason. His contract was terminate in March 2016. As of 2019, Colegio Arubano’s director is Michella van Loon.
Although classes begin at 7:30 AM, the last hour of instruction varies by course and is based mainly on the characteristics of each student. Students in grades VWO 3 (9th grade), HAVO 4 (10th grade). And higher will typically attend class from 7:30 AM to 1.25 PM or 2:10 PM, with rare exceptions to 3 PM. Each period is 45 minutes long, except for the week when the students’ mentors and teachers meet to discuss the report cards. Every period is shorten by 10 minutes during that week.
It typically takes place the week before report cards are given to parents. And during this time, each class meets for 35 minutes.
Some classes, such as CKV (acting, dance, music, and painting) and LO (physical education), which are offer once a week, last for an hour and thirty minutes. Other subjects are also frequently assign. It is often related to the grade or the difficulty of the material covered during that particular year. With some exceptions for HAVO and VWO, the number of hours allot to each subject. It is generally the same for all classes in the same grade. The most fundamental issues are mathematics, English, and Dutch.